|Posted by newsgena on May 16, 2009 at 8:55 PM||comments (0)|
1885: Congo state created by Leopold II, the King of Belgium.
1960:Congo becomes independent...Kasavubu=president,Lumumba=prime minister
1964:Mobutu seizes power through a military coup and rules the country for more than 30 years.
In the 60's -Kanyarwanda war in North Kivu.
In 1964: The Mulele war in Kivu.
In 1973 the Schrame war in Kivu. Bukavu bombarded heavily.
In 1993 the war against Congolese Abahutu and Batutsi.
In 1994- massive return of Batutsi to Rwanda accross the Eastern Congo-DRC border. Most of them former Refugees in Zaire.
1996: Kabila with AFDL and Rwanda-Uganda-Burundi attack Zaire to topple Mobutu off power
In 1996 wide scale massacres and crime against humanity toward Congolese Abahutu people in Congo.
1997.Laurent Kabila becomes president 15 may 1997.
In 1997, the UN sends a team led by Mr. Roberto Garreton to investigate the alleged genocide against Abahutu people.
Kabila laurent assassinated in January 2001.
2001: His son Joseph Kabila took power. Joseph Kabila elected president in October 2006.
2007, Congolese Abahutu people targeted by all war lords rebels operating in Eastern Congo-DRC and survivals concentrated in camps for "Internally Displaced Camps". The wounds are bleeding in the DRC. How can we contribute to stop the bleeding and lastingly cure the wounds and heal the scars?
|Posted by newsgena on May 13, 2009 at 2:49 PM||comments (0)|
Why understanding the roots of the conflicts in the DRC in general and in the Eastern DRC in particular?.
Why understanding the abahutu people in the DRC and their fate in the conflicts?.
Why understanding the meaning of the expressions "Banyarwanda/Rwandophons" in the DRC?.
We want to work and empower attitudes that ulitimately will contribute to restoring lasting Peace, Justice and Democracy (corner-stone values of development) in the DRC. The elements above would contribute to the achievement of this goal.
This document is dynamique and newsgena will be updating it as research publishes new findings in the matters above.Read updates at the link
Before 1885, the abahutu people (congolese Hutus) were living in well structured kingdoms united and led by the "umwami"(king). The Germans are the first western society to have visited the kingdoms. With the colonization era the fate of the abahutu people lacked attention.
The Berlin conference in Germany in 1885 resulted in the tearing apart of abahutu kingdoms as Germany, Great Britain and King LeopoldII of Belgium shared the colonies in central Africa.
After 1885,the abahutu were divided into Eastern Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, North-Western Tanzania, southern Uganda,. However the Eastern Congo border is only traced latter in 1911 following agreements regarding precise border markings between King Leopold II ( Belgium)(taking Congo), Great Britain(taking Uganda) and Germany(taking Ruanda and Urundi).
Following this division abahutu families found separated from their family relatives and friends across the Eastern Congo border. Some members living in Congo on one hand and the other relatives living either in Ruanda (actual Rwanda) or in Uganda.Migration between these families took place volontarily and unofficially.
1914-1919; First World war. Germany lost the war campain and lost the control of Ruanda and Burundi. These 2 german colonies were placed under Belgium trustee by the Society of Nations(actual UNITED NATIONS-UN).
Belgium encouraged and supported movements accross the eastern Congo border towards 1937-1955 mainly from Ruanda into Congo. The high density populated Ruanda, the well structured abahutu kingdoms ( Bushiru, Bugoyi, Buhoma, Burera etc,) and the hardwork and loyal spirits of abahutu people on one hand and the increasing need for human resources in the Eastern Congo to work in the belgian commercial and widescale farms on the other hand motivated the Belgium into encouraging and supporting the migration. Belgium latter even recruited abahutu from Ruanda-Urundi to go and work in the mines as far as Kipushi, Kolwezi, Likasi in the Katanga province! Belgium felt the wahutu had particular social strutures that entrusted the hardwork and the loyal spirit.
It is quite clear that Belgians did not force any "Umuhutu" (singular word meaning 1 (a)congolese hutu) into migration but they rather encouraged and supported the migration.
"Nyirarukundo" an elderly lady who lived in "Rusho (murugano)" county in "Masisi "( unfortunately passed away in 1999 at the age of 80 years!) explains" they brought to us big potatoes and informed the land accross is fertile"!"..." My husband and I decided to go and see as well as others were going there. We first settled in a the area down the Nyiragongo volcanoe. It was all bush. No people lived there. One day as I went to fecth water down the river I escape death from a lion threat. When I went back home, I forced my husband to leave and we went back to Bushiru. Few months latter we decided to cross again. This time we settled in Rusho. It was all bush. Now the fields are all green!".
The Belgian's motivation was driven by the already existing self-initiated movement accross the eastern Congo border. This is crucial to understanding subsequent conflicts that arose around migration.
|Posted by newsgena on May 13, 2009 at 2:48 PM||comments (0)|
ROOTS OF CRISIS IN THE KIVU REGION-CONGO(DRC)-GREAT LAKES OF AFRICA
The Eastern Congo(drc) has lived the worse humanitarian scenarios in the country soon after independance of Congo(drc) on 30 June 1960.
Soon after indenpendence inhabitants were all entitled to freely participate in the management of the region and decide on their destiny. However it was not for long as discrimination, exclusion , ethnicism, regionalism (civil and human rights violations) arose. These violations were mostly manifested in the:
In 1962-1966: The kanyarwanda war. 1971-The "Abahutu" (Congolese Hutus) stripped off their ultimate right, the right to citizenship. President Mobutu signed a presidential ordonance
stripping off citizenship to the abahutu. The consequences of such a decision are unmeasurable as the peasants and elite class of the Bahutu faced tragedy" the unknown face of the Mobutu's regime". The Abahutu had no right to the land anymore!
With the era of Multiple political parties in Zaire ( the actual Congo-drc) in 1990, the Abahutu fought back peacefully and democratically to regain their rights.They were subsequently killed, tortured and massacred just as democracy was booming out in Zaire ( actual Congo-drc). On the 20 March 1993, the untold took off.The Abahutu were caught up in their homes and chruches (it was a sunday!)in the district of Walikale and Masisi and were cruelly killed and massacred.
In 1994 the Abahutu witnessed the death of thousands of thousands of the Rwandan Hutus refugees as the latter fled the RPF-led Government in Rwanda. Meanwhile the killings and massacres of the Abahutu in Eastern DRC that took off in 1993 continued. In 1996 the Rwanda-Burundi-Uganda RPF-AFDL supported rebellion fighting to destroy the rwandese Hutus refugee camps in the eastern Congo(drc) and to topple president Mobutu cleansed the villages of Abahutu in its warrior campains. The Abahutu who survived are those who opted to run away from villages and live in the bush feeding on wildly plants and fruits!
President Laurent Kabila seized power and his son Joseph Kabila took
power in 2001 following the abrupt assassination of his father.President Kabila has now been elected democratically to power in October 2006. But today what occurs in Congo in general and Eastern Congo(drc) in particular is appalling and extremely distressfull.
The Abahutu are still being massacred, marginalized, exluded from the North-Kivu provincial and Congo(drc) national responsabilities.The rebel-leaders and the governement soldiers daily torture, kill and massacre the Abahutu community in Eastern DRC- Congo. And yet the country is now in democracy,,, and yet the country has now an army and police to defend its citizen...with the support of MONUC... Newsgena Institute wants to make difference and share the untold with the entire humanity. Spread the news, share the news. Share the news , assist in restoring lasting peace in the region.Stand for life and save the Abahutu people and the other inhabitants in the Eastern Congo(DRC) from the civil and human rights violations and support them in restoring lasting peace and striving for sustainable development.
|Posted by newsgena on May 13, 2009 at 2:20 PM||comments (0)|
This document is dynamic and updates are entered as more research findings and analysis are published. Please visit regularly this news group publications for latest updates and the newsletter at the link
The Eastern Congo(drc) has lived the worse humanitarian scenarios in the country soon after independance of Congo(drc) on 30 June 1960. Soon after independence inhabitants were all entitled to freely participate in the management of the region and decide on their destiny. However it was not for long as discrimination, exclusion , ethnicism, regionalism (civil and human rights violations) arose. These violations were mostly manifested and resulted in the "kanyarwanda massacres".
In 1962-1966: The kanyarwanda massacres... the Abahutu people were attacked by the other ethnics in North-Kivu with the intention to force them out of the Congo-DRC accross the rwanda-ugandan border. The word "ka" is a word added to another word expressing and meaning "small""little""no value""insignificant". "nyarwanda" simply means " related to rwanda;in this case it meant "native of Rwanda". The Abahutu people not only were being discriminated but also were being forced to leave their homes, propreties,land and all their investiments. Many died and the survival strived in very harsh and discriminative environment under the 30 years Mobutu-dictatorship era.
In 1971-the Abahutu people were stripped off their ultimate right, the right to citizenship. President Mobutu signed a presidential ordonance stripping off citizenship to Abahutu(congolese bahutu). Every "Umuhutu" (word-in-singular meaning "Abahutu or congolese hutu) was no longer a zairean(actual congolese)! The consequences of such a decision are unmeasurable as the peasants and elite class of the Abahutu faced the tragedic unknown face of the Mobutu's regime. The Abahutu had no right to the land anymore! They had to vacate or pay regularly land rights to the "other local "non muhutu mwami"(non-muhutu king). On top of this they had to pay the regular state taxes! No other ethnic faced such a treatment in the Kivu region! The Mobutu law on the nationality and these specific taxes were released and directed specifically to and solely to the bahutu people in the Eastern DRC.
With the era of multiple political parties in Zaire ( the actual Congo-drc) in 1990, the Bahutu fought back democratically to regain their rights. The Abahutu managed to secure few voices in the National souvereign conference and the Mobutu law about the nationality stripping off zairean-congolese citizenship the Abahutu was discussed.This discussion in the CNS arose tensions and the Abahutu people were attacked again like in 1962-1966 with the intention to force them out of the DRC. They were subsequently killed, tortured and massacred just as democracy was booming out in Zaire ( actual Congo-drc).Mr "Ibuka", wrote the "core-date" and says what happened on the 20 Mars 1993 will remain pegged in his memories!
On the 20 March 1993, the untold took off.The Abahutu were caught up some in their homes, others in the churches in the district of Walikale and Masisi and were cruelly killed and massacred.It was not possible to cross the "nyaripi river". The assaillants were there waiting for the Abahutu at the 2 cord traditional bridge in the inside jungle of Walikale and Katoyi.
In 1994 the Abahutu witnessed the death of thousands of thousands of the Rwandan Hutus refugees as the latter fled the RPF-led Government in Rwanda.
Meanwhile the killings and massacres of the Abahutu that took off in 1993 continued.
In 1996 the Rwanda-Burundi-Uganda RPF-AFDL supported rebellion fighting to destroy the rwandese Hutus refugee camps in the eastern Congo(drc) and to topple president Mobutu cleansed villages of Abahutu in its warrior campains. Peasant civilians had to leave in bushes to survive...
This is a turning point in the lasting peace in the DRC.Laurent Kabila playing the "machiavelic political games" officially imported the Rwandan conflicts into the DRC. RPF-Rwanda Patriotic Forces had not only control over Kinshasa but also over the entire Kivu region. The UN Human Rights Commission organized a comittee to look into the reported genocide in the DRC. Roberto Garreton led the commission in the mission. The reports of the commission still lie in the offices somewhere at UN Headquarters. RPF (Rwanda) had time to dig out and burn up all corpes or carry the skeleton and skulls accross the border into Rwanda and stocked in its museum[remember that is needed in that country!...to prove that people died in 1994! following assassination of the rwandan hutu President Habyarimana by RPF (at all Juge Buguiere)].
President Laurent Kabila seized power and his son Joseph Kabila took power in 2001 following the abrupt assassination of his father.President Kabila has now been elected democratically to power in October 2006. But today what occurs in Congo in general and Eastern Congo- DRC in particular is appalling and extremely distressfull.
The ABahutu ( Congolese Hutus) are still being massacred, marginalized, exluded from the North-Kivu provincial and Congo(drc) national responsabilities.The CNDP rebel-leader -allegedly backed by Rwandan national army daily torture, kill and massacre the Abahutu. And yet the country is now in democracy,,, and yet the country has now an army and police to defend its citizens... However the congolese governement and president Joseph Kabila's ideology seems paradoxal.
Paradoxal! Why the congolese government supported the CNDP to fight the alleged FDLR-Forces democratiques pour la liberation du rwanda ( a virtual armed organization) 2 years ago. This led to massacres of multitudes of civilians in the Congo. The war load leadership was said to be captured and taken to court for his wide scale "Charles Taylor like" mass killings. The rebel forces refused to leave eastern DRC and continued to massacre the Abahutu people. The congolese government continued to support such crimes. Until when the UN peacekeeping missions raised the alarm of a mare genocide against the Abahutu going on in the Eastern DRC. The congolese governement then decided to stop the war campaign against the virtual FDLR( Quid? does it really exist in the Eastern DRC? How old would be a child born when rwandan hutu refugee exiled into Zaire? He would be 14 years old). Today the survivals of the genocide committed against the congolese Abahutu are concentrated in camps commonly called I"DP-Internally Displaced People". It will take an embargo against the supporters of the rebels in Eastern DRC to halt the massacres of innocent civilians, "child soldier" abuse and rape against women.
It appears Congolese Abahutu ethnic are being hunted down. When One race is being hunted down by another race, is this genocide or not? A state releasing a law directed to stripping off citizenship a certain ethnic of the nation, is this racism, apartheid, discrimination, ethnicism, regionalism, nepotism, or it's just " mere politics"? The greek Platon would tell more.