The Eastern Congo(drc) has lived the worse humanitarian scenarios in the country soon after independance of Congo(drc) on 30 June 1960.
Soon after indenpendence inhabitants were all entitled to freely participate in the management of the region and decide on their destiny. However it was not for long as discrimination, exclusion , ethnicism, regionalism (civil and human rights violations) arose. These violations were mostly manifested in the:
In 1962-1966: The kanyarwanda war... More...BACKGROUND OF CURRENT CONFLICTS IN CONGO-DRC
Before 1885, the abahutu people (congolese Hutus) were living in well structured kingdoms united and led by the "umwami"(king). The Germans are the first western society to have visited the kingdoms. With the colonization era the fate of the abahutu people lacked attention.
The Berlin conference in Germany in 1885 resulted in the tearing apart of abahutu kingdoms as Germany, Great Britain and King LeopoldII of Belgium shared the colonies in central Africa. More ....BACKGROUND
In 1971-the Abahutu people were stripped off their ultimate right, the right to citizenship. President Mobutu signed a presidential ordonance stripping off citizenship to Abahutu(congolese bahutu). Every "Umuhutu" (word-in-singular meaning "Abahutu or congolese hutu) was no longer a zairean(actual congolese)! The consequences of such a decision are unmeasurable as the peasants and elite class of the Abahutu faced the tragedic unknown face of the Mobutu's regime. The Abahutu had no right to the land anymore! They had to vacate or pay regularly land rights to the "other local "non muhutu mwami"(non-muhutu king). On top of this they had to pay the regular state taxes! No other ethnic faced such a treatment in the Kivu region! The Mobutu law on the nationality and these specific taxes were released and directed specifically to and solely to the bahutu people in the Eastern DRC. More... ROOTS OF CRISIS IN THE KIVU REGION
Abahutu at creation recognized and identified themselves as “abantu” (singular “Umuntu”) meaning a "human being". The abahutu oral tradition is silent about the origins of the word “Hutu”. Some people believe the word emerged well before 19th century. Arabs-traders had infiltrated the African great lakes region well before the 19th century. At that time the Arabic and the “African” languages (the Bantus languages as we will see latter) symbiosis resulted into the "Kiswahili" language we know today. A human being was then identified in Swahili as “muTU’. It is then said that Whites arrived in one of the Bahutu kingdoms. Pointing the finger to a citizen of the abahutu kingdom, the Whites asked one of the African servant who was with them” who is that?". The African guider replied he is a" Umuntu", meaning "a human being". The Whites exclaimed " u'm'Hutu" trying to pronounce correctly in swahili what the African guider has just told them. The Whites spread the news that they saw a" 'Hutu". The word HUTU was thus born. Latter in 19th century the western powers explored central Africa. The abahutu oral tradition states that when Europeans came to the abahutu empire they asked the king “who are those”? The king said "n’abantu" meaning they are human beings. The European captured the word "Bantu". The word "Bantu" was thus born. Latter all African communities who related to a human being as a "NTU" were called "baNTU" people and belonged to the "BANTU" ethnic group known today. A human being is called “umuntu” in the language spoken by Abahutu. However the word “Umuntu” (plural "Abantu”) used in capital letter would as realized above mean a “Umuhutu” (plural "Abahutu"). More... THE ABAHUTU ETYMOLOGY AND HISTORY
Linguistics have studied the Abahutu mother tongue and languages of many other African people in eastern, central and southern Africa. They have discovered that these people shared with Abahutu the expression “ntu” when relating to a human being including Swahili “muTU”, Shona (muNHU”), Bemba, Nyanja,Ndebele, Zulu, Xosa, etc. More... THE CONCEPT OF THE KIHUTU LANGUAGE
Abahutu people are naturally farmers. They love farms and are hard workers. They are loyal. They love to have children even in most difficult situations. They cherish procreation. They believe in God, the Almighty. God is called in Kihutu (African language spoken by Abahutu) "Imana". They believe God is the creator "RUGIRA" “RUREMA"; God "provides children "NIYIBYARA"; God is the Almighty "NIYONKURU"; God can be talked to and can answer prayers" IRUMVA", etc. Abahutu believe the name affects the future of the owner. Thus a child is always named after certain circumstances surrounding his birth or his conception. More... THE CONGOLESE BAHUTU PHILISOPHY
CHRONOLOGICAL FACTS:POLITICS AND SOCIETY OF THE CONGO-DRC
1964:Mobutu seizes power through a military coup and rules the country for more than 30 years.
In the 60's -Kanyarwanda war in